The aim of this article was to present the possibilities of use and application of color-coded Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of various diseases of the eyeball and orbit which result from vascular disorders. Color-coded Doppler ultrasonography is recommended for the assessment of blood flow velocity in the retrobulbar arteries. That is why the article contains current recommendations for Doppler imaging in ophthalmology. The paper provides detailed recommendations for patient’s preparation for the examination, presents the scanning technique and safety of the examination, and lists ophthalmological diseases of vascular origin for which color-coded Doppler ultrasonography can be applied. Furthermore, the article also presents other techniques applied in clinical practice for the assessment of blood flow or imaging of vasculature of a given eyeball structure, inter alia: power Doppler ultrasonography, 3D and 4D ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography, spiral computer tomography, transcranial ultrasonography and modern microvascular imaging. The authors emphasize the usefulness of color-coded Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of diseases which result from blood flow disorders within the eyeball, such as amaurosis fugax, ocular ischemic syndrome, insufficiency in vessels supplying the carotid and vertebral arteries, posterior ischemic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, vascular vision disorders, vascular malformations, such as arteriovenous fistula, orbital varices, systemic connective tissue diseases in retinopathy of prematurity, diabetes, thyroid disorders or strabismus. The application of color-coded Doppler ultrasonography is especially important in the assessment of the vasculature of intrabulbar tumorous lesions and in the differential diagnosis of intrabulbar tumors.