Cervical stenosis and pregnancy rate after ultrasound guided cervical dilation in women undergoing saline infusion sonography
J Ultrason 2020; 20: e116–e121
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2020.0019

Aim: To assess the effect of ultrasound-guided cervical dilation on clinical pregnancy rates in women with cervical stenosis. Methods: A prospective case control study was conducted in women with unexplained infertility. These women underwent saline infusion sonography and were suspected of having cervical stenosis if a 7 French Foley’s catheter could not be introduced into the cervical canal. Women with suspected stenosis who agreed to undergo ultrasound guided dilation were included as cases. Those with suspected stenosis who refused dilation were used as controls. Both groups were followed for one year. The primary outcome measure was women who had clinical pregnancy i.e. fetal heart beat present on transvaginal scan during the follow up period. Results: During the study period, 1097 women who underwent SIS were included. A total of 117 (10.7%) patients had cervical stenosis. No statistically significant difference was there in both groups in terms of mean age (p = 0.617), mean body mass index (p = 0.598), duration of infertility (p = 0.588) and type of infertility (p = 0.167). However, both groups were significantly different in terms of history for risk factors i.e. endometriosis (p <0.001), prior surgery (p <0.001), polyps (p = 0.004) and pelvic inflammatory disease (p = 0.001). Eighty-nine women agreed to have dilation and were used as cases and 28 women refused and were used as controls. Of the cases, 70.45% conceived as compared to 18.5% of controls. The mean time to conception in months was also significantly lower in cases (8.10 ± 3.43 vs. 11.39 ± 1.97, p <0.001). Conclusions: Our study shows that ultrasound-guided cervical dilation in women with cervical stenosis can lead to improved conception rates.

Key words: cervical stenosis, conception, ultrasound-guided cervical dilation