High-frequency ultrasound in the 21st century
Robert Krzysztof Mlosek1, Bartosz Migda1, Michał Migda2
1 Ultrasound Diagnostic Department Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
2 Clinical Unit of Obstetrics, Women’s Disease and Gynecological Oncology, United District Hospital, Collegium Medicum University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Torun, Torun, Poland
Correspondence: Robert Krzysztof Mlosek, Ultrasound Diagnostic Department Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw, Poland; tel.: +48 601 355 236; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The beginnings of skin ultrasound date back to about 50 years ago. However, the dynamic progress of skin ultrasound took place in the last twenty years, when the unprecedented development of computer technologies occurred, which resulted in the popularization of and easier access to modern ultrasound equipment. Skin tests can be performed with both classic scanners equipped with broadband transducers with a minimum frequency of 15 MHz, and specially dedicated skin systems with high-frequency scanners, which are equipped with mechanical transducers with a frequency of 20 MHz to up to 100 MHz. Owing to technologically advanced machines, ultrasonography has proved to be useful in many areas. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge and possibilities of skin imaging using highfrequency ultrasonography. Te paper discusses technical aspects, types of devices available on the market, as well as methods for the analysis of ultrasound skin images and parameters useful in their interpretation. We also present current applications of skin ultrasound, with particular emphasis on dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In the field of dermatology, we discussed imaging of focal lesions as well as an assessment of pathologically changed skin and treatment monitoring. We also focused on the use of high-frequency ultrasonography in aesthetic medicine and cosmetology. The popularity of this method is constantly growing in these fields, and ultrasound is now used in everyday practice to assess the skin, plan and monitor procedures, as well as to treat potential complications. High-frequency ultrasonography is a highly effective method for skin evaluation, although still underappreciated in may fields. Further research is needed to standardize this modality, as well as to implement training for operators, and to popularize this imaging technique.