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Uterine myomas and sarcomas – clinical and ultrasound characteristics and differential diagnosis using pulsed and color Doppler techniques

Kamila Wojtowicz1, Tomasz Góra1,2, Paweł Guzik1, Magdalena Harpula1, Paweł Chechliński1, Ewelina Wolak1, Aleksandra Stryjkowska-Góra3

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2022; 22: e100–e108
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2022.0017
Abstract

Uterine tumors are a challenge encountered by every gynecologist in clinical practice. In the era of increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the general population of women at reproductive age, compared to other genital malignancies, we should not forget about other tumors originating from the mucous and muscular layer of the uterus. Clear ultrasonographic differentiation of uterine tumors into benign (myomas) and malignant (sarcomas) lesions may sometimes prove impossible. Myomas, the most common uterine tumors, are characterized by discrete vascularization on color Doppler and high blood flow velocity as well as the lack of early diastolic notch on Doppler ultrasound. Sarcomas, on the other hand, show characteristic rich vascularization. Rapid tumor growth should also be noted when making the diagnosis. There are multiple known causes of uterine tumors. So far, no clear Doppler flow markers have been identified to characterize benign and malignant lesions.

Keywords
myoma; sarcoma; Doppler