Ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventional procedures around the hip: a practical guide
Domenico Albano1, Salvatore Gitto2, Francesca Serpi2, Alberto Aliprandi3, Luca Maria Sconfienza1,2, Carmelo Messina1,2
1 Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
3 Radiology, Istituti Clinici Zucchi, Monza, Italy
Corresponding author: Domenico Albano; e-mail: email@example.com
Several studies have shown that ultrasound guidance may contribute to improved safety, effectiveness and accuracy of musculoskeletal interventional procedures performed around the hip if compared to those performed with a landmark-guided technique. Different approaches and injectates can be used for treating hip musculoskeletal disorders. These procedures may involve injections in the hip joint, periarticular bursae, tendons, and peripheral nerves. Intra-articular hip injections are mostly used as a conservative approach for treating patients affected by hip osteoarthritis. Ultrasound-guided injection of the iliopsoas bursa is performed in patients with bursitis and/or tendinopathy, to treat those with painful prosthesis due to iliopsoas impingement, or when the lidocaine test is indicated to identify the iliopsoas as a source of pain. Ultrasound-guided interventions are routinely used in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome having as target the gluteus medius/minimus tendons and/or the trochanteric bursae. Ultrasound-guided fenestration and platelet-rich plasma injection are applied in patients with hamstring tendinopathy with good clinical outcomes. Last but not least, ultrasound-guided perineural injections can be used for peripheral neuropathies or blocks of the sciatic, lateral femoral cutaneous, and pudendal nerves. In this paper, we discuss the evidence and technical tips for musculoskeletal interventional procedures performed around the hip, highlighting the added value of ultrasound as an imaging guidance modality.