Maxillofacial inflammations visualized with ultrasonography. Description of the imaging features and literature review based on a characteristic case series

Antigoni Delantoni1 , Apostolos Sarafopoulos2 , Natalia Giannouli2 , Vasileios Rafailidis2

Affiliation and address for correspondence
J Ultrason 2023; 23: e80–e89
DOI: 10.15557/JoU.2023.0015

Objectives: Inflammations of the maxillofacial regions are a frequent occurrence. They areusually of odontogenic origin, but maxillofacial swelling could also have non-odontogenic causes. Their clinical presentation is worrisome for the patient, presenting as swellings of the region with rapid and significant expansion to adjacent areas due to the thin and delicate nature of the regional soft tissues. Materials and methods: The characteristic features are discussed upon the presentation of a case series of the most common types of inflammation seen in the region. Results: In most hospital emergency departments, ultrasound scanning is readily accessible, and typically constitutes the first-line imaging modality for this entity. Nevertheless, the role of ultrasound imaging is limited in cases with deep extension of the inflammation, where crosssectional imaging with CT or MRI will be the modality of choice. This manuscript aims to present the characteristic features of various inflammatory conditions of the maxillofacial area seen on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Even though maxillofacial inflammations are often treated without imaging in their initial phase, ultrasound can provide aninexpensive, easy-to-use, and readily available alternative that best visualizes the characteristics and expansion patterns of the lesions, based on their origin and area of initial presentation.

maxillofacial ultrasound; maxillofacial inflammation; facial ultrasonography